Thyroid glands play a critical role in fetal brain development during pregnancy and in the regulation of growth and metabolic function after development. Thyroid dysfunction has become a common clinical problem nowadays and the incidence is increasing each year. However, the ideal approach for adequate diagnosis and management of thyroid dysfunction still becomes a debate among endocrinologists. Several guidelines for thyroid dysfunction management have been established by various group of experts, mostly focused on thyroid nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) and subclinical hypothyroidism is considered as a laboratory than a clinical diagnosis. In order to achieve compliance with accepted protocols, an appropriate interpretive reports should be an integral part of the investigation of both SH and subclinical hypothyroidism. The medications of anthytiroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and surgery are considered as treatments for SH. Whereas oral levothyroxine treatment is chosen as a therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism. Taken together, diagnosis and management of both SH and hypothyroidism need regular monitoring of thyroid function. Even though expert panels already released various guidelines for the diagnosis and management of thyroid dysfunction, each patient should be assessed individually to determine the most suitable treatment. Until adequate data are available, clinical judgment was combined with patient’s preferences to improve best practice.